The ceremony recognises performances over a calendar year and it is the third time Messi has picked up the top award, having also won i in 2019 and 2022.
The 36-year-old finished level on points with Erling Haaland, after votes were cast by a mixture of national team managers and captains, journalists and fans, but it was Messi who picked up the prize as a result of having more first-place nominations from captains. Kylian Mbappe finished third in the voting.
Gareth Southgate and Messi himself were among those to vote for Haaland, who was a crucial figure in Manchester City's treble-winning side, while Harry Kane and Mbappe opted for Messi.
— BBC Sport (@BBCSport) January 15, 2024
Aitana Bonmati, winner of the Women's Ballon d'Or, was named women's player of the year as expected, while there were awards for England duo Wiegman and Earps.
Wiegman was named women's coach of the year for the fourth time, while Earps picked up the top goalkeeper award for the second consecutive year, adding to her individual collection after she was named BBC Sports Personality of the Year.
Aside from Haaland missing out, there was the expected Manchester City domination of the men's award, after last season's successes.
Pep Guardiola picked up the coach prize and Ederson was the top goalkeeper, though he was not among the six City players to be named in the team of the year.
Instead it was Thibaut Courtois who got the nod, along with Real Madrid team-mate Jude Bellingham, but John Stones, Kyle Walker, Ruben Dias, Bernardo Silva, Kevin De Bruyne and Haaland were all picked in the team.
England were represented by Earps, Lucy Bronze, Alex Greenwood, Keira Walsh, Alessia Russo, Lauren James and Ella Toone in the women's XI, after their run to the World Cup final in the summer.