The outspoken head of Russia's Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) Yury Ganus was fired from his position on Friday after accusing the country's sporting leadership of failing to fight widespread drug use.
The decision to remove the director general "was taken unanimously", the president of Russia's Olympic Committee Stanislav Pozdnyakov said at a press conference.
Ganus, 56, was forced from his role after the Russian Olympic Committee in July published an audit of RUSADA that exposed alleged financial violations.
On August 5, the supervisory board of RUSADA recommended the Olympic and Paralympic Committees consider dismissing Ganus.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) said it worried about the decision and continues to have doubts about RUSADA's autonomy.
"These developments reinforce the concerns expressed by WADA in its statement of August 5 in relation to the manner in which (RUSADA) reached the decision regarding Mr. Ganus," said a statement.
"(WADA) re-emphasize the critical importance for RUSADA to maintain its operational independence going forward."
The United States anti-doping body (USADA) accused Moscow of violating the WADA code and pressed the international organisation to take decisive action.
"Russian sport appears to intentionally violate the WADA Code by controlling RUSADA," the US body said in a statement.
"Protests by the NADO (national anti-doping organistion) employees have come through resignations, but will there be any consequences for the state?
"Or will global regulators once again turn a blind eye?"
Pozdnyakov said Friday the decision to remove Ganus was taken after "carefully considering" the arguments laid out by the supervisory board.
Russia has been embroiled in sporting scandal since 2016 when widespread state-sponsored doping was revealed in an independent report by sports lawyer Richard McLaren.
In December, WADA banned Russia for four years from major global sporting events including the Tokyo Olympics and the 2022 World Cup in Qatar.
The appointment of Ganus as head of RUSADA in 2017 was supposed to help Russia clean up its image.
Ganus sharply criticised the actions of Russia's sports leadership and described a ban on its athletes competing worldwide as justified by Moscow's failure to acknowledge wrongdoing and implement real reforms.
Ganus, who was fully expecting the move, told AFP his removal would damage Russian sports since RUSADA "had become a bridge for restoring confidence" between Russia and international sporting bodies.
Mikhail Bukhanov, the agency's lawyer, has been appointed acting general director. His successor will be decided through elections within six months.
A trained lawyer with a career in business, Ganus took the helm of RUSADA without any special knowledge of sports or science.
He was chosen as a candidate who could inspire confidence in a renewed RUSADA and was untarnished by its central role in the doping scandal.