Houston Astros manager AJ Hinch and general manager Jeff Luhnow have been fired after the pair were suspended by Major League Baseball for the team's use of electronics for sign stealing during Houston's run to the 2017 World Series title and during the 2018 season.
In US sports' largest scandal since the New England Patriots' ‘Spygate’, Commissioner Rob Manfred announced the discipline on Monday and strongly hinted that current Boston manager Alex Cora - the Astros bench coach in 2017 - will face equal or more severe punishment.
Manfred said Cora developed the sign-stealing system used by the Astros. The Red Sox are under investigation for sign-stealing in Cora's first season as manager in 2018, when Boston won the World Series.
Houston was fined $US5 million for sign stealing, the maximum allowed under the Major League Constitution. The Astros will forfeit their next two first- and second-round draft picks.
Houston was found guilty of using a television camera in centre field to relay catcher's signals of pitches to its video replay room, and players banged on a trash can to signal to batters what was coming.
Astros players disputed whether knowing the pitches seconds in advance helped batters. Houston had fewer wins at home than on the road, winning 94 home games and 110 on the road during the two seasons. There was no sign-stealing system on the road.
“While it is impossible to determine whether the conduct actually impacted the results on the field, the perception of some that it did causes significant harm to the game,” Manfred said.
Manfred, in his most significant action since becoming commissioner five years ago, said Hinch failed to stop the sign stealing and that Luhnow was responsible for the players' conduct even though he made the dubious claim he was not aware. Manfred said owner Jim Crane was not informed.
An hour after MLB announced its decision, Crane opened a news conference by saying Hinch and Luhnow were fired.
“We need to move forward with a clean slate,” he said.
Houston’s success during years in question
Houston was a big league-best 204-120 during the two years in question, winning its first title.
Hinch, a 45-year-old former catcher with a degree from Stanford, was the most successful manager in the history of the Astros, who have won two of the last three AL pennants and came within one victory of another World Series title.
Luhnow, 53, earned an MBA at Northwestern and fostered an analytic-based culture during eight seasons as Astros GM, but also a toxic one with high turnover.
'“It is very clear to me that the culture of the baseball operations department, manifesting itself in the way its employees are treated, its relations with other clubs, and its relations with the media and external stakeholders, has been very problematic,” Manfred wrote in a nine-page statement.
“At least in my view, the baseball operations department's insular culture -- one that valued and rewarded results over other considerations, combined with a staff of individuals who often lacked direction or sufficient oversight, led ... finally, to an environment that allowed the conduct described in this report to have occurred.”
Manfred said Hinch was aware of the system but did not tell Luhnow.
“As the person with responsibility for managing his players and coaches, there simply is no justification for Hinch's failure to act,” Manfred said.
The GM told Major League Baseball he was unaware of the system, but Manfred held him accountable for the team's actions.
“Although Luhnow denies having any awareness that his replay review room staff was decoding and transmitting signs, there is both documentary and testimonial evidence that indicates Luhnow had some knowledge of those efforts.”
How the scandal was uncovered
Baseball's investigation began when former Astros pitcher Mike Fiers, now with Oakland, made the allegations in a report by The Athletic on November 12.
MLB's Department of Investigations interviewed 27 witnesses, including 23 current and former Houston players, and reviews tens of thousands of emails, Slack communications, text messages, video clips and photographs.
Astros employees in the team's video replay room started to decode signs using the centre field camera at the start of the 2017 season. A player would act as a runner to bring the information to the dugout, where a runner on second would be signalled.
The runner would decode the catcher's sign and signal the batter. At times, an employee in the replay room would convey the information by text message to the watch or phone of a staff member in the dugout.
Cora began calling the replay room for the information early in the season. After a group of players discussed how to improve the system about two months into the season, Cora arranged for a video monitor of the centre field camera to be installed next to the dugout and players would communicate pitches by banging a bat or massage gun on a trash can. Two bangs usually were used for off-speed pitches and no sound for fastballs.
Manfred said the banging system was not used in 2018 but that signs were stolen by the replay room and communicated to the dugout during at least part of that season. There was no evidence signs were stolen during the 2018 playoffs.