England have sealed a third consecutive Women's Six Nations title by edging France 10-6 in an absorbing game at Twickenham Stoop.
Poppy Cleall charged over the try line in the final minute of the first half on Saturday and captain Emily Scarratt added the extras to make amends for two earlier penalty misses.
France came out firing in the second half and reduced the gap to one point through the boot of Caroline Drouin as the error count of a nervy English side climbed.
But the Red Roses wrestled back the momentum in the closing stages and Scarratt's last-minute penalty sealed victory.
"It doesn't need to be big, flamboyant scorelines every week," Scarratt told the BBC.
"The defence was unreal and we had to dig in. I could have made it easier with a couple of penalties in the first half but I'm really proud of the effort. The desire to not let them over the tryline was superb."
The format of the competition was changed this year due to the coronavirus pandemic, with England and France facing off in the final as the winners of two three-team groups, rather than the usual six-team round-robin format.
Earlier, Ireland had sealed third place with a 25-5 win over Italy in Dublin.