In their place, Surrey seamer Sam Curran and Sussex’s Ollie Robinson have been called up for the match at Old Trafford, which begins on Thursday.
Anderson and Wood played the opening Test at the Ageas Bowl in Southampton alongside Jofra Archer and stand-in captain Ben Stokes in an attack stacked with pace, but England fell to a four-wicket defeat on the final day.
Broad said he was “angry” and “gutted” to be left out of the team but is set to get the opportunity to make his point this week, and will be the team’s senior bowler with Anderson absent.
With Joe Root returning to captain the side following the birth of his second child, top-order batsman Joe Denly has dropped out of the squad after an underwhelming run of form.
Lancashire seamer Saqib Mahmood has left the Test squad to join up with England’s white-ball training group, ahead of the Royal London Series against Ireland starting later this month.
England squad for second Test vs West Indies
Joe Root (Yorkshire) captain, Jofra Archer (Sussex), Dominic Bess (Somerset), Stuart Broad (Nottinghamshire), Rory Burns (Surrey) Jos Buttler (Lancashire), Zak Crawley (Kent), Sam Curran (Surrey), Ollie Pope (Surrey), Ollie Robinson (Sussex), Dom Sibley (Warwickshire), Ben Stokes (Durham), Chris Woakes (Warwickshire).
James Anderson (Lancashire), Mark Wood (Durham).
James Bracey (Gloucestershire), Joe Denly (Kent), Ben Foakes (Surrey), Dan Lawrence (Essex), Jack Leach (Somerset), Craig Overton (Somerset), Olly Stone (Warwickshire).