After losing four wickets in the first two sessions, Bangladesh held firm at the end of the first day against the West Indies to score 5-242.
Left-arm spinner Jomel Warrican took 3-58, to pose plenty of questions to the host's batsmen.
Left-handed opener Shadman Islam top scored with 59, his second half-century in Test cricket.
"I was sticking to my plan," Shadman said. "We have got a good start but we need a few big partnerships to post a big total on the board."
Najmul Hossain Shanto, Mominul Haque and Mushfiqur Rahim made 25, 26 and 38 respectively and failed to come up with big scores. While Najmul was run-out, Mominul and Mushfiqur were removed by Warrican.
At lunch, Bangladesh were 2-69. Tamim Iqbal was out to Kemar Roach for nine within the first hour.
Roach, the most experienced West Indies bowler, delivered a full-length ball that sneaked between the bat and pad of Tamim and shattered his stumps.
In the second session, Bangladesh added 71 runs for the loss of two more wickets while in the final session they compiled another 72 runs for the loss of one wicket.
Liton Das (34) and Shakib Al Hasan (39) remained not out at the end of the day, scoring 49 in the sixth-wicket stand.
It was Bangladesh's first Test since the start of the coronavirus nearly a year ago, while the West Indies have played five matches.
Shakib is making a return after serving a ban imposed by the ICC for failing to report corrupt approaches made to him by bookmakers.
The West Indies have three players making their Test debuts - Nkrumah Bonner, Kyle Mayers and Shayne Moseley.