City's Erling Haaland is one of 12 Premier League players nominated.
Argentina legend Lionel Messi is the overwhelming favourite to win and extend his record to eight Ballons d'Or after winning the World Cup.
There are two players who left European clubs this summer - Messi, who joined Inter Miami from Paris St-Germain, and current holder Karim Benzema, who left Real Madrid for Al-Ittihad.
Five-time winner Cristiano Ronaldo, who plays for Al-Nassr, was not nominated for the first time since 2003.
Bellingham, who joined Real from Borussia Dortmund this summer, is one of 10 nominees for the best young player award, the Kopa Trophy.
New Manchester United striker Rasmus Hojlund is also nominated.
Arsenal and England's Aaron Ramsdale is one of four Premier League goalkeepers on the 10-man shortlist for the Yashin Trophy, for the world's best keeper.
Ballon d'Or nominees
Josko Gvardiol (Manchester City, Croatia)
Jamal Musiala (Bayern Munich, Germany)
Andre Onana (Manchester United, Cameroon)
Karim Benzema (Al-Ittihad, France)
Mohamed Salah (Liverpool, Egypt)
Bukayo Saka (Arsenal, England)
Kevin de Bruyne (Manchester City, Belgium)
Jude Bellingham (Real Madrid, England)
Randal Kolo Muani (Paris St-Germain, France)
Bernardo Silva (Manchester City, Portugal)
Khvicha Kvaratskhelia (Napoli, Georgia)
Emiliano Martinez (Aston Villa, Argentina)
Ruben Dias (Manchester City, Portugal)
Erling Haaland (Manchester City, Norway)
Martin Odegaard (Arsenal, Norway)
Ilkay Gundogan (Barcelona, Germany)
Yassine Bounou (Sevilla, Morocco)
Julian Alvarez (Manchester City, Argentina)
Vinicius Jr (Real Madrid, Brazil)
Rodri (Manchester City, Spain)
Antoine Griezmann (Atletico Madrid, France)
Lionel Messi (Inter Miami, Argentina)
Lautaro Martinez (Inter Milan, Argentina)
Robert Lewandowski (Barcelona, Poland)
Kim Min-jae (Bayern Munich, South Korea)
Luka Modric (Real Madrid, Croatia)
Kylian Mbappe (Paris St-Germain, France)
Harry Kane (Bayern Munich, England)
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