The 25-year-old enjoyed a hugely successful year as she helped her club triumph in the Spanish top flight and Champions League, and her country win the World Cup in the summer.
She was also crowned Uefa's player of the year in August.
"I'm very proud to win the Ballon d'Or," Bonmati said.
"Football is a collective sport so I'd like to extend this prize to my team-mates and staff."
She added at the end of her speech in English: "Finally congratulations to the other nominees. They're great footballers.
"As role models we have a responsibility on and off the pitch. We should be more than athletes and keep leading by example and fighting together for a better, peaceful and equal world."
Spain's World Cup win was overshadowed by the fallout from Spanish football federation president Luis Rubiales kissing Jenni Hermoso after the final, which she said was not consensual.
She has now won four league titles with Barcelona and two Champions Leagues.
This was the fifth edition of the Women's Ballon d'Or, with Bonmati's Spain and Barcelona team-mate Alexia Putellas winning the past two.
Ballon d'Or top 10
1. Aitana Bonmati (Spain and Barcelona)
2. Sam Kerr (Australia and Chelsea)
3. Salma Paralluelo (Spain and Barcelona)
4. Fridolina Rolfo (Sweden and Barcelona)
5. Mary Earps (England and Manchester United)
8. Patricia Guijarro (Spain and Barcelona)
10. Rachel Daly (England and Aston Villa)
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